Where was Clarke’s Dairy?

Clarke's Dairy 1

Clarke’s Dairy, looking east down North Brunswick Street, with New Lisburn Street extending beyond (Bureau of Military History).

Of all the battlefield sites of the rebellion, North King Street is perhaps the most difficult to interpret in the contemporary landscape. Air Corps photographs taken in 1950 depict an area completely alien to modern eyes, one which still retains many of the buildings evident on the Ordnance Survey 25 inch mapping undertaken in 1907. According to the Bureau of Military History (BMH) website, the photographs were annotated by Commandant R. Feely who fought in the area in 1916 and when taken along with the other images obtained by the Air Corps they provide a fascinating glimpse of a city which has virtually vanished in the intervening years.

Our task as archaeologists is to treat this area as an archaeological site and to collect the evidence as we would were we excavating trenches in the ground. This may appear an unusual endeavour; however the theory of using archaeological techniques in contemporary landscapes is one which has gained currency elsewhere and where traditional archaeological approaches usually involve the destruction of the evidence through excavation, our approach is to interpret what’s in front of us, to identify what survives today and hopefully to redefine ideas of what actually happened over the period of the Rising.

In addition to the photographs, the BMH has over 20 witness statements from participants and observers of the fighting in the area, which provide details of the location of barricades and premises occupied by the Volunteers from the Monday through to the eventual surrender of the final outpost the following Sunday. The witness statements were collected between 1947 and 1957, some thirty to forty years after the events took place, and a certain degree of imprecision is to be expected. Where historians treat these texts as (often contradictory) primary sources, the team initially interrogated the documents for references to the buildings occupied and attempted to annotate them on the 1907 mapping before examining the evidence in the field.

It’s striking that anyone under the age of 60 will have no memory of the general area around Church Street and North King Street as it would have appeared in 1916 and in this respect, this brings the area closer to a traditional archaeological site. Of all the sites to be covered in the project, this landscape is perhaps the most denuded in terms of its built heritage and historic vistas, where the widening of the principal road junction makes it very difficult to appreciate the intimacy of the fighting over the final hours as Reilly’s Fort was being attacked from the east.

Reading through the witness statements certain buildings achieve a deserved prominence and in the case of one building in particular, something of the difficulty in reimagining the landscape with the historical sources can be appreciated. Clarke’s Dairy is annotated on all the maps of the fighting as being located on the southwestern corner of Church Street and North Brunswick Street. More recently published accounts of the Rising persist in locating the dairy to the west of Church Street and the secondary accounts of what took place here are obviously influenced by this perception of its location.

The witness statements are admittedly ambiguous as to the exact location of the dairy, where its strategic significance is accepted in all primary accounts. The witness statement of Captain Nicholas Laffan (BMH WS201) for example states that he established his HQ in Moore’s (coachbuilders) Factory, which occupied the northwestern corner of the junction, and that he also occupied Clarke’s Dairy ‘diagonally opposite’. Eamon Morkan’s witness statement (BMH WS411) agrees with Laffan and states that ‘we manned a house, Clarke’s, at the junction of Church Street and New Lisburn Street’.

The positions on North Brunswick Street have an added significance in the narrative of the Rising, being the last to surrender on the Sunday morning. The British, having taken Reilly’s Fort the previous day, had effectively cut off communications with the new HQ established in the Four Courts and the surrender of Clarke’s Dairy was negotiated by Paddy Holahan, who had taken over the position after Laffan was wounded.

An examination of the 1915 edition of Thom’s Directory does not list Clarke’s Dairy and indicates that the southeastern corner of New Lisburn Street and Church Street was occupied by Monk’s Bakery, where several of the witness statements state that Monk’s was on the northeastern corner of Church Street and North King Street. The files of the Property Losses (Ireland) Committee were also examined and they indicate that Thomas Clarke of 80 Church Street Upper claimed for £53 for damage to stock and furniture, where he was eventually granted £20 (NAI PLIC/1/3575).

Clarke's Dairy OS copy

Ordnance Survey 25 inch mapping c. 1907. Clarke’s Dairy at 80 Church Street Upper outlined.

The four Air Corps photographs taken of the building known as Clarke’s Dairy in 1950 undoubtedly depict the structure identified by Laffan and Morkan. The building has long been demolished and its foundations, which presumably survive underneath the carriageway on Church Street, have now become an archaeological site in their own right. When the photographs are examined with the 1907 mapping, the strategic importance of the building becomes obvious. The three windows in its north-facing elevation provided an excellent field of fire against any British advance being made down Constitution Hill from their position at Broadstone, where the angle of fire from the windows in the west-facing façade dominated any attempted advance from the west along North Brunswick Street. The witness statements also specify that ‘loopholes’ were broken through on the north- and south-facing elevations, which explains how fire could be directed on Reilly’s Fort after its capture by the British.

Moore's Coach House then and now

North Brunswick Street c. 1950 (left) with Clarke’s Dairy to centre and the scene today (Alva Mac Gowan).

Clarke's Dairy then and now

North-facing elevation of Clarke’s Dairy c. 1950 (left) and the same vista today (Alva Mac Gowan).

How is it possible that a site of such significance continues to be incorrectly mapped? The landscape of the Rising was certainly extant when the witness statements were being collected in the 1950s. As late as 1964 local TD Richard Gogan asked a parliamentary question regarding the clearance ‘of that part of the scheme consisting of Lisburn Street, Coleraine Street and Upper Church Street, which consists mainly of derelict houses’ (Dáil Éireann Debates, Vol. 181 No. 1). The road widening eventually came to pass by the end of the ‘60s, resulting in the construction of Kevin Barry House and urban landscape we see today.


Moore Brothers coach factory (right) on the corner of Church Street and North Brunswick Street with the gable of Clarke’s Dairy (left). Photograph looking west from New Lisburn Street (An tÓglách, May 15, 1926).

The first account of the fighting in the North King Street area was published as three instalments in the journal of the National Army, An tÓglágh in May 1926. It was written by John J. Reynolds, Curator of the Municipal Art Gallery ‘from statements made to the writer shortly after 1916, by actual participants in the fighting’. Reynolds refers to the occupation of ‘Moore’s Coach Factory, a long low building at the comer of North Brunswick Street’ and states that ‘at Monks’ Bakery the high three storey house, Clarke’s Dairy, opposite the coach factory was taken’. Where Laffan thirty years later specified that the buildings were diagonally opposite one another, the map published in the third instalment of Reynolds’ account places Clarke’s Dairy directly opposite Moore’s on the southern side of North Brunswick Street. All of the maps of the battlefield published since have perpetuated this mistake where the accompanying narratives have followed suit.

Our investigations of this landscape continue. Over the next few posts we’ll be looking at what remains of the Linenhall Barracks, what the files of the Property Losses (Ireland) Committee can tell us about the location of Volunteer positions and the conflicting evidence for the conflict around the Four Courts.

1st Battalion area of operations, Easter 1916

‘Map of Four Courts and North King Street Area’, An tÓglách, May 29, 1926. Note 20, the location of Clarke’s Dairy.


5 thoughts on “Where was Clarke’s Dairy?

  1. lv alway known Clarkes was on the corner of New Lisburn St,with Monks next door to it, but, mistakes are made, lv seen the Priory Of St John, which was Ned Dalys HQ,on Brunswick St,listed, as next to the Tap, [Reillys Fort] on Northking St..Great piece,and lm looking forward to the folly’up’ers….ta


    • There is a photograph of the door to the bakery following the arrest of Kevin Barry with Clarke’s Dairy clearly visible beside it. This was posted in the Facebook group Dublin of Ould, from where I took a screen capture.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. Curious about the eastern extent of Linen Hall barracks, and the remaining gate today on Yarnhall St, facing Bolton St tech. Grandad had a forge adjacent to he gate, since pulled down and replaced by flats complex on Henrietta Place. Read Paddy Holahan’s witness account of the army barricade stretching down Yarnhall St.


    • The gate’s a nice survival isn’t it? We recorded vistas down the lane in the drizzle on Friday afternoon. There are several really good buildings down there including thre old Romanian restaurant. The British seem to have established barricades around the ‘ring’ with another one just at our office at the top of Queen Street. We’ll be posting information on the Linenhall and the druggists’ just inside the gate next week.


  3. Congratulations on great research. The dairyman, Thomas Clarke, was my great grandfather, which I only recently discovered by DNA testing
    There was more than just confusion over the geographical position of the site of this 4-storey building (mistakenly described as 3-storey). It was certainly on the corner of Church Street and new Lisburn Street. Monk’s bakery would have been a more apt description for the site of this prominent stronghold in the battle but by the time participants recorded their memories after the Rising it was well established as Clarke’s dairy. Thom’s directory listed it as Monks bakery in 1916 right up until 1923. In 1924 it was listed as Peter Kennedy, baker and confectioner. Only from 1925 onwards was it listed as T Clarke, dairy.
    Thomas Clarke was recorded as a general labourer, aged 32 but recorded as 30, living again at No. 31 Brunswick St. Nr. with his Aunt Catherine Brunton and her family, the Tyrrells. He moved to No. 44 shortly before he married Mary Anne (Polly) Pidoux, in St. Paul’s Arran Quay, on 1 Aug 1911. Polly was the daughter of John Pidoux, cooper, born in Woolwich, and Anne Holohan, living at 26 Nr. Brunswick St.
    Thomas’s daughter Mary (Maisie) Clarke (1912-1973) was followed by John (1913-1915), who died at 80 Church St. Upr. By this stage Thomas was operating Clarkes Dairy, probably subletting a small part of the premises from Patrick Monks who operated a bakery. On 1 Mar 1916, Thomas was charged with refusing, on 7 Feb., to sell a pennyworth of milk to the Food Inspector and fined £2. Mr. Tutty said that he had got a sample of milk, divided and sealed it when (Polly) Mrs Clarke took the bottle off the counter, took it to another room and said (to laughter in the court) ’You will not get them. It is the wrong milk you have got’. Mr. Clarke then refused to return the bottles for another pennyworth, saying that it was milk for calves. A little girl, who was in charge of the shop, said she had been instructed by Mrs. Clarke that she was not to sell any milk, that morning, because it was sour.

    Needless to say the premises was wrecked after the Rising and Thomas was not insured. Monks was compensated for damage to the building, detailed as follows;-
    79/80 Church St.
    Breaking through walls, breaking window frames and glass, etc.
    Description of damage;-
    10 holes torn through division walls, Three window sashes damages and broken. Sixteen panes of glass broken. Bricks removed from reveals (sides) of 3 windows.
    Schedule of repairs:
    Item 1 Scaffold and build holes in front and end of house. Replace plasterwork on inside; £6,2s
    Item 2 Make and fit one pair of (window up/down) sashes to back passage at top floor, bottom sash to front room, rehang 5 top sashes, make and fit 5 sets of (glazing bead) slips, to glaze 4 panes of glass in old sashes, glaze and paint new sashes; £5,9s,7d
    Item 3 To repair 4 doors where broken, to re-hinge same with new hinges and screws, replace broken locks to two rooms, 1 stock lock to landing door and repair frame to same; £2,10s
    Item 4 To repair partition where broken between passage and rooms and re-glaze sash in same for £1,5s.
    Total £15,7s,1d
    Quotation from; John Kennedy, Carpenter and General Contractor, 31 Kirwan Street.
    Owner/Lessor: insured against fire only – Policy 3761, Hibernian Fire and General Insurance Company; On the building having shop therein at present vacant, occupied as store for oats by … Messrs. Patrick Monks & Co. and otherwise in tenements, all communicating, situate No 79, 80 Church Street, Dublin.
    The inspector, Richard Ingoldsby, for the Property Losses (Ireland) Committee found £96.15 (including £15 for building damage) to be reasonable compensation.

    Thomas Clarke claimed £53 for loss of stock, by ‘military and rebels’ including rounded up sums for tea, sugar, butter and margarine, ground cocoa, tinned fish and milk, cheese and flour, fancy cakes and bread, furniture and glass, 60 gals. sweet milk. An inspector, Herbert Dorse, considered the claim to be outrageous as the morning milk would have been delivered and the evening milk not yet delivered. Dorse visited the premises and described Thomas as a dairy keeper and provision dealer in a small way. (Thomas may have commenced trading from a small part of the premises a year before the Rising and later expanded the business). Thomas was unavailable so he met Polly (Pidoux), who resented the inspection. At the prospect of the claim being turned down, she became more reasonable. There was no proof of the stock value when the Volunteers forced an entry. She admitted that the amounts were roughly calculated. Dorse considered that they were more than double the actual loss. He valued the stock on the day of his visit and recommended a payment of £24. The Committee allowed £20 and according to her grandson, Polly carried a grudge over the Rising for the rest of her life.

    On 17 Oct 1916, Thomas appeared in the City Sessions court, being sued by Mary Lacy of Ballynacahill, Edenderry for non-return of 2 cans and non-payment of £2, 12s, 6d for milk she supplied at 7d per gallon up until that August. Thomas claimed that one of the cans was lost in the Rising, that he sent them back by rail and that the milk was sour and he had to churn it. The Recorder (judge) said he believed the milk was sour and that the cans were returned but decreed a payment of £2.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s